Nuclide Information

 Carbon-14

Nuclide-C-14             Nuclide-C-14decay

Radioactive Half-life: 5730 years
Decay mode: beta – 100%
Principal emissions: beta
Maximum beta energy: 156 keV
ALI: a) Ingestion: 34 MBq/y
b) Inhalation: 1000 MBq/y
Max. beta range in air: 240 mm
Appropiate method for contamination monitoring: Liquid scintillation counter 
Shielding material: Total absorption in 0.2 mm of glass or 0.3 mm of plastic
Dosimetry: Urine analysis for those that use 68 MBq (1.84 mCi) or more volatile liquids or gases at a time, without containment

Special precautions:

  • Recommended protective clothing:
    • Disposable lab coat, gloves (select gloves appropriate for chemicals handled) and wrist guards.
    • Some organic compounds can be absorbed through gloves therefore, wear two pairs of gloves and change the outer layer frequently.
  • Be careful not to generate carbon dioxide and handle potentially volatile or dusty coumpounds in a fume hood.
  • Use disposable absorbent liners on trays.

Tritium

Nuclide-H-3                     Nuclide-H-3decay

Radioactive Half-life: 12.35 years
Decay mode: beta – 100%
Principal emissions: beta
Maximum beta energy: 18.6 keV
ALI: a) Ingestion: 480 MBq/y
b) Inhalation: 490 MBq/y
Max. beta range in air: 6 mm
Appropiate method for contamination monitoring: Liquid scintillation counter 
Shielding material: Total absorption in < 0.1 mm of glass or plastic
Dosimetry: Urine analysis for those that use 0.96 GBq (26 mCi) or more volatile liquids or gases at a time, without containment

Special precautions:

  • Tritium is not a radiation hazard unless it enters the body. Once in the body, tritiated water is uniformly distributed in the body water and can then expose tissues. Tritiated water can be absorbed through the surface of skin, leading to an internal exposure.
  • Recommended protective clothing:
    • Lab coat and PVC gloves (0.5 mm thick) are preferred because of this material’s low permeability to tritiated water.
    • Many tritium compounds readily penetrate gloves and skin. Handle these compounds remotely, wear two pairs of gloves and change the outer layer at least every twenty minutes.
  • Handle tritiated water, gases and volatile liquids in ventilated enclosures.
  • Use glass containers to store tritium compounds because tritiated water and tritiated organic solvents will pass through plastic.
  • Use disposable absorbent liners on trays.

Sodium-24

Nuclide-Na-24      Nuclide-Na-24decay

Radioactive Half-life: 14.96 hours
Decay mode: beta – 100%
Principal emissions: beta
gamma
Maximum beta energy: 1.39 MeV
Gamma energies: 1.368 MeV (100%); 2.754 MeV (99.9%)
ALI: Ingestion 47 MBq/y
Inhalation: 38 MBq/y
Max. beta range in air: 600 mm
Appropiate method for contamination monitoring: Geiger-Muller
Gamma counter / Solid scintillation detector
Liquid scintillation counter 
Shielding material: Lead; half-value layer = 1.32 cm
Dosimetry: TLD whole body and extremities for those using 50 MBq (1.35 mCi) or more at a time

Special precautions:

  • Always use the principles of time, distance and shielding to minimize dose.
  • Recommended protective clothing:
    • Use disposable plastic, latex or rubber gloves.
    • Wear a lab coat, which must be monitored before leaving the laboratory.
    • Wear safety glasses.
  • Minimise handling time.
  • Use syringe shields and tongs to handle unshielded sources and potentially contaminated vessels.
  • Use disposable absorbent liners on trays.

Phosphorus-32

Nuclide-P-32  Nuclide-P-32decay 

Radioactive Half-life: 14.26 days
Decay mode: beta – 100%
Principal emissions: beta
Maximum beta energy: 1.71 MeV
ALI: a) Ingestion: 8.3 MBq/y
b) Inhalation: 6.9 MBq/y
Max. beta range in air: 7.9 m
Appropiate method for contamination monitoring: Geiger-Muller
Liquid scintillation counter 
Shielding materials: Total absorption: 3.4 mm glass or 6.3 mm Plexiglas
Dosimetry: TLD whole body and extremities for those using 50 MBq (1.35 mCi) or more at a time

Special precautions:

  • Recommended protective clothing:
    • Disposable plastic, latex or rubber gloves, safety glasses.
  • Keep handling time to minimum.
  • Use plastic syringe shields and tongs to avoid direct skin contact.
  • When possible work behind a plastic screen.
  • Use disposable absorbent liners on trays.
  • Always use the principles of time, distance and shielding to minimize dose.
  • Near an unshielded 37 MBq (1 mCi) P-32 source, dose rates due to beta radiation can be 260 mSv/hr. Never work over an open container with P-32.
  • Hundreds MBq quantities can produce significant secondary radiation (x-rays) due to bremsstrahlung effect. In this case, 3-6 mm of lead needs to be added to the Lucite shield. Avoid local high dose exposure by remote handling of large quantities and prompt removal of contaminated clothing or gloves.
  • The bone is the critical organ for uptake of transportable compounds of P-32. The lung and the lower intestine are the critical organs for inhalation and ingestion of insoluble P-32 compounds respectively.

Phosphorus-33 

Nuclide-P-33         Nuclide-P-33decay

Radioactive Half-life: 25.34 days
Decay mode: beta – 100%
Principal emissions: beta
Maximum beta energy: 248.5 keV
ALI: a) Ingestion: 83 MBq/y
b) Inhalation: 15 MBq/y
Max. beta range in air: 500 mm
Appropiate method for contamination monitoring: Liquid scintillation counter 
Shielding material: Plexiglas
Dosimetry: Urine analysis for those that use 30 MBq (0.81 mCi) or more volatile liquids or gases at a time, without containment

Special precautions:

  • Avoid local high dose exposure by remote handling of large quantities and prompt removal of contaminated clothing or gloves.
  • MBq quantities of P-33 do not present an external exposure hazard.
  • The bone is the critical organ for uptake of transportable compounds of P-33. The lung and the lower large intestine are the critical organs for inhalation and ingestion of insoluble P-33 compounds, respectively.
  • Phosphorus metabolism is complex: 30% is rapidly eliminated from the body, 40% has 19-day biological half-life, and the rest is reduced by radioactive decay.

Sulphur-35 

Nuclide-S-35                Nuclide-S-35decay

Radioactive Half-life: 87.44 days
Decay mode: beta – 100%
Principal emissions: beta
Maximum beta energy: 167.5 keV
ALI: a) Ingestion: 26 MBq/y
b) Inhalation: 170 MBq/y
Max. beta range in air: 260 mm
Appropiate method for contamination monitoring: Liquid scintillation counter 
Shielding material: Total absorption in 0.2 mm of glass or 0.3 mm of plastic
Dosimetry: Urine analysis for those that use 52 MBq (1.41 mCi) or more volatile liquids or gases at a time, without containment

Special precautions:

  • Sulphur dioxide: irritant to eye, nose, throat, lungs; bronchoconstriction; mutagen, suspect reproductive effects. Hydrogen sulphide: moderate irritant to eye (conjunctivitis), lung; acute systemic toxicity; Central Nervous System may be affected. Sulphur is combustible.
  • Recommended protective clothing:
    • Wear disposable lab coat, gloves and wrist guards for secondary protection.
    • Select appropriate gloves for chemicals handled.
    • Lab coat must be monitored before leaving the laboratory.
  • S-35 is volatile and should be handled in ventilated enclosures. Take care not to generate sulphur dioxide or hydrogen sulphide which could be inhaled.
  • Use disposable absorbent liners on trays.
  • Radiolysis of S-35 amino acids during storage and use may lead to the release of S-35 labelled volatile impurities. Therefore, all vials should be opened and used in a fume hood.

Potassium-42

Nuclide-K-42             Nuclide-K-42decay

Radioactive Half-life: 12.36 hours
Decay mode: beta – 100%
Principal emissions: beta
gamma
Maximum beta energy: 3.525 MeV
Gamma energies: 1.524 MeV (100%); 1.922 MeV (22%), 2.424 MeV (16%)
ALI: Ingestion 47 MBq/y
Inhalation: 100 MBq/y
Max. beta range in air: 13 m
Appropiate method for contamination monitoring: Geiger-Muller
Gamma counter / Solid scintillation detector
Liquid scintillation counter 
Shielding material: Lead; half-value layer = 1.18 cm
Dosimetry: TLD whole body and extremities for those using 50 MBq (1.35 mCi) or more at a time

Special precautions:

  • Always use the principles of time, distance and shielding to minimize dose.
  • Recommended protective clothing:
    • Use disposable plastic, latex or rubber gloves.
    • Wear a lab coat, which must be monitored before leaving the laboratory.
    • Wear safety glasses.
  • Minimise handling time.
  • Use syringe shields and tongs to handle unshielded sources and potentially contaminated vessels. Use disposable absorbent liners on trays.
  • Always handle hundreds MBq quantities behind lead shielding.

Calcium-45 

Nuclide-Ca-45         Nuclide-Ca-45decay

Radioactive Half-life: 162.61 days
Decay mode: beta – 100%
Principal emissions: beta
Maximum beta energy: 257 keV
ALI: a) Ingestion: 26 MBq/y
b) Inhalation: 8.7 MBq/y
Max. beta range in air: 520 mm
Appropiate method for contamination monitoring: Geiger-Muller
Liquid scintillation counter 
Shielding materials: Total absorption: 0.3 mm glass or 0.6 mm Plexiglas
Dosimetry: Urine analysis for those that use 17.2 MBq (0.46 mCi) or more volatile liquids or gases at a time without containment. Contact the U of T Radiation Protection Services if you use larger quantities.

Special precautions:

  • Calcium-45 is considered highly radiotoxic because of its affinity for the bone. Radiocalcium has a long biological half-life and can cause damage to the blood forming organs. Calcium reacts with water, producing hydrogen. If concentrated, the gas becomes a fire and explosion hazard. Calcium also poses a fire and explosion hazard when heated or when in contact with strong oxidizing agents.
  • Recommended protective clothing:
    • When working with unsealed sources wear appropriate protective clothing, such as laboratory coats, coveralls, gloves, and safety glasses/goggles.
    • Laboratory coats must be monitored before leaving the laboratory.
    • Use a suitable mask if the radioactive material is in the form of a dust, powder or if it is volatile.
  • The metabolism of Calcium is complex. The majority is deposited in the bone and is retained with a long biological half-life (18000 days/50 years). A smaller fraction is eliminated immediately via the urine but eventually half of the radionuclide is eliminated via the feces.

Chromium-51 

Nuclide-Cr-51       Nuclide-Cr-51decay

Radioactive Half-life: 27.7 days
Decay mode: e capture
Principal emissions: gamma
X-rays
Gamma energy: 320 keV
X-ray energy: 5 keV
ALI: Ingestion: 530 MBq/y
Inhalation: 560 MBq/y
Appropiate method for contamination monitoring: Geiger-Muller
Gamma counter / Solid scintillation detector
Liquid scintillation counter 
Shielding material: Lead; half-value layer = 0.17 cm
Dosimetry: TLD whole body and extremities for those using 50 MBq (1.35 mCi) or more at a time

Special precautions:

  • Chromium and chromate salts are suspected carcinogens of the lungs, nasal cavity and paranasal sinus, also experimental carcinogen of the stomach and larynx. Skin exposure to chromate salts may result in dermatitis. Sodium chromate (Cr-51) solution may emit radioactive fumes containing Cr-51 when heated to decomposition.
  • Recommended protective clothing:
    • Use disposable plastic, latex or rubber gloves.
    • Wear a lab coat, which must be monitored before leaving the laboratory.
    • Wear safety glasses.
  • Minimise handling time.
  • Use syringe shields and tongs to handle unshielded sources and potentially contaminated vessels.
  • Use disposable absorbent liners on trays.

Iodine-125                 

Nuclide-I-125 Nuclide-I-125decay

Radioactive Half-life: 60.14 days
Decay mode: e capture
Principal emissions: gamma
X-rays
Gamma energy: 35.5 keV
X-ray energy: 27 keV
ALI: Ingestion: 1.3 MBq/y
Inhalation: 1.4 MBq/y
Appropiate method for contamination monitoring: Geiger-Muller / Solid scintillation detector
Liquid scintillation counter 
Shielding materials: Lead; half-value layer = 0.1 mm
Dosimetry: Thyroid scan for those who use in 24 hours more than 2 MBq (54 microCi) without containment or more than 200 MBq (5.4 mCi) in a fume hood. TLD (whole body and ring) for those who use more than 50 MBq (1.35 mCi) at a time

 Special precautions:

  • Iodine compound can become volatile. Handle and store in ventilated areas. Exposure to significant amounts of radioiodine increases risk of developing thyroid cancer. Iodine is toxic by ingestion and inhalation and a strong irritant of eyes and skin. Iodine can be absorbed through the skin. When iodinated (I -125) albumin injection is heated to decomposition, radioactive fumes containing I-125 may be emitted.
  • Recommended protective clothing:
    • Disposable plastic, latex or rubber gloves.
    • Wear a lab coat, which must be monitored before leaving the laboratory.
    • Also wear safety glasses.
    • Some iodine compounds can penetrate surgical rubber gloves. Wear two pairs or polyethylene gloves over rubber.
  • Store NaI-125 solutions at room temperature because freezing may result in subsequent volatilization of radioiodine.
  • The critical organ for I-125 uptake is the thyroid. The thyroid may be assumed to accumulate 30% of the soluble iodine and retain it with a biological half-life of 138 days. The elimination takes place via urine.

Iodine-131 

Nuclide-I-131                Nuclide-I-131decay

Radioactive Half-life: 8.04 days
Decay mode: beta – 100%
Principal emissions: beta
gamma
Maximum beta energy: 807 keV
Gamma energy: 364.5 keV (100%); 637 keV (8.8%), 284.3 keV (7.5%)
ALI: Ingestion: 0.91 MBq/y
Inhalation: 1 MBq/y
Appropiate method for contamination monitoring: Gamma counter / Solid scintillation detector
Geiger-Muller
Liquid scintillation counter 
Shielding material: Lead; half-value layer = 2.5 cm
Dosimetry: Thyroid scan for those who use in 24 hours more than 2 MBq (54 microCi) without containment or more than 200 MBq (5.4 mCi) in a fume hood. TLD (whole body and ring) for those who use more than 50 MBq (1.35 mCi) at a time

Special precautions:

  • Iodine compound can become volatile. Handle and store in ventilated areas. Exposure to significant amounts of radioiodine increases risk of developing thyroid cancer. Iodine is toxic by ingestion and inhalation and a strong irritant of eyes and skin. Iodine can be absorbed through the skin. Heating Hippuran (I-131) or sodium iodide -131 to decomposition may result in radioactive fumes containing I-131 to be emitted.
  • Recommended protective clothing:
    • Disposable plastic, latex or rubber gloves.
    • Wear a lab coat, which must be monitored before leaving the laboratory.
    • Also wear safety glasses.
    • Fluoroscopy aprons provide no protection against the radiation from I-131.
  • Always wear disposable plastic when working with I-131 and use instruments to handle I-131. Some radioiodine compounds may penetrate gloves and skin. Even small quantities of I-131 may present a significant external exposure hazard. The critical organ for I-131 uptake is the thyroid

Lutetium-177 

Nuclide-Lu-177   Nuclide-Lu-177decay

Radioactive Half-life: 6.73 days
Decay mode: beta – 100%
Principal emissions: beta
gamma
Maximum beta energy: 498 keV
Gamma energies: 208.3 keV (11%); 113 keV (6.4%)
ALI: Ingestion 29.6 MBq/y
Inhalation: 29.6 MBq/y
Max. beta range in air: 93 cm
Appropiate method for contamination monitoring: Solid scintillation detector
Geiger-Muller
Liquid scintillation counter 
Shielding material: Lead; half-value layer = 0.2 cm
Dosimetry: TLD whole body and extremities for those using 50 MBq (1.35 mCi) or more at a time

Special precautions:

  • Always use the principles of time, distance and shielding to minimize dose.
  • Recommended protective clothing:
    • Use disposable plastic, latex or rubber gloves.
    • Wear a lab coat, which must be monitored before leaving the laboratory.
    • Wear safety glasses.
  • Minimise handling time.
  • Use syringe shields and tongs to handle unshielded sources and potentially contaminated vessels.
  • Use disposable absorbent liners on trays.

Rubidium-86 

Nuclide-Rb-86    Nuclide-Rb-86decay

Radioactive Half-life: 18.63 days
Decay mode: beta – 100%
Principal emissions: beta
gamma
Maximum beta energy: 1.774 MeV
Gamma energies: 1.077 MeV (100%)
ALI: Ingestion 7.1 MBq/y
Inhalation: 15 MBq/y
Max. beta range in air: 790 cm
Appropiate method for contamination monitoring: Geiger-Muller
Gamma counter / Solid scintillation detector
Liquid scintillation counter 
Shielding material: Plexiglas + Lead; half-value layer (lead) = 0.87 cm
Dosimetry: TLD whole body and extremities for those using 50 MBq (1.35 mCi) or more at a time

Special precautions:

  • Always use the principles of time, distance and shielding to minimize dose.
  • Recommended protective clothing:
    • Use disposable plastic, latex or rubber gloves.
    • Wear a lab coat, which must be monitored before leaving the laboratory.
    • Wear safety glasses.
  • Minimise handling time.
  • Use syringe shields and tongs to handle unshielded sources and potentially contaminated vessels.
  • Use disposable absorbent liners on trays.

Ruthenium-106 

Nuclide-Ru-106 Nuclide-Ru-106decay

Radioactive Half-life: 373.6 days
Decay mode: beta – 100%
Principal emissions: beta
Maximum beta energy: 39.4 keV
ALI: a) Ingestion: 2.96 MBq/y
b) Inhalation: 1.33 MBq/y
Max. beta range in air: 8 mm
Appropiate method for contamination monitoring: Liquid scintillation counter 
Shielding material: None
Dosimetry: TLD whole body and extremities for those using 50 MBq (1.35 mCi) or more at a time

Special precautions:

  • Recommended protective clothing:
    • When working with unsealed sources wear appropriate protective clothing, such as laboratory coats, coveralls, gloves, and safety glasses/goggles.
    • Laboratory coats must be monitored before leaving the laboratory.
    • Use a suitable mask if the radioactive material is in the form of a dust, powder or if it is volatile.

Copper-64

Nuclide-Cu-64        Nuclide-Cu-64decay

Radioactive Half-life: 12.7 hours
Decay mode: e capture
Principal emissions: gamma
X-rays
Gamma energy: 511 keV (36%); 1345.8 keV (0.8%)
X-ray energy: 8 keV
ALI: Ingestion: 170 MBq/y
Inhalation: 130 MBq/y
Appropiate method for contamination monitoring: Geiger-Muller
Gamma counter / Solid scintillation detector
Liquid scintillation counter 
Shielding material: Lead; half-value layer = 0.41 cm
Dosimetry: TLD whole body and extremities for those using 50 MBq (1.35 mCi) or more at a time

Special precautions:

  • Always use the principles of time, distance and shielding to minimize dose.
  • Recommended protective clothing:
    • Use disposable plastic, latex or rubber gloves.
    • Wear a lab coat, which must be monitored before leaving the laboratory.
    • Wear safety glasses.
  • Minimise handling time.
  • Use syringe shields and tongs to handle unshielded sources and potentially contaminated vessels.
  • Use disposable absorbent liners on trays.

Indium-111 

Nuclide-In-111          Nuclide-In-111decay

Radioactive Half-life: 2.83 days
Decay mode: e capture
Principal emissions: gamma
X-rays
Gamma energy: 245.5 keV (100%); 171.3 keV (96%)
X-ray energy: 23 keV
ALI: Ingestion: 69 MBq/y
Inhalation: 65 MBq/y
Appropiate method for contamination monitoring: Gamma counter / Solid scintillation detector
Geiger-Muller
Liquid scintillation counter 
Shielding material: Lead; half-value layer < 2 mm
Dosimetry: TLD whole body and extremities for those using 50 MBq (1.35 mCi) or more at a time

Special precautions:

  • Indium metal and its compounds are toxic by inhalation, causing cumulative organ damage. Suspected teratogen. When Indium 111 chloride is heated to decomposition, radioactive fumes may be emitted.
  • Recommended protective clothing:
    • Use disposable plastic, latex or rubber gloves.
    • Wear a lab coat, which must be monitored before leaving the laboratory.
    • Wear safety glasses.
  • Keep handling time to a minimum. Always use the principles of time, distance and shielding to minimise dose.
  • Use syringe shields and tongs to handle unshielded sources and potentially contaminated vessels.
  • Use disposable absorbent liners on trays.